viernes, 26 de agosto de 2011

Assimilation in English

from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assimilation_(linguistics)

Assimilation is a common phonological process by which the sound of the ending of one word blends into the sound of the beginning of the following word. This occurs when the parts of the mouth and vocal cords start to form the beginning sounds of the next word before the last sound has been completed. An example of this would be 'hot potato'. The (t) in 'hot' is dropped as the lips prepare for the (p) sound for 'potato' (Bloomer et, 2005).
Assimilation can be synchronic being an active process in a language at a given point in time or diachronic being a historical sound change.
A related process is coarticulation where one segment influences another to produce an allophonic variation, such as vowels acquiring the feature nasal before nasal consonants when the velum opens prematurely or /b/ becoming labialised as in "boot". This article will describe both processes under the term, assimilation.

Types of assimilation:
From: http://www.btinternet.com/~ted.power/assimilation.html#as01
  1. / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
  2. / d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /
  3. / n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /
  4. / t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/
  5. / d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g /
  6. / n / changes to /ŋ/ before / k / or / g /
  7. / s / changes to /ʃ/ before /ʃ/ or / j /
  8. / z / changes to /ʒ/ before /ʃ/ or / j /
  9. /θ/ changes to / s / before / s /

/ t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /



basket makermixed bag
best manmixed blessing
cat burglarmixed marriage
cigarette papermixed metaphor
circuit boardpocket money
coconut butterpost mortem
court martialpot plant
direct methodprivate property
dust bowlput back
fast motionput by
first baseright pair
flight plansecret police
foot brakeset point
front benchset back
front manset piece
fruit machinesheet metal
Great Britainsit back
harvest moonsoft porn
hatchet mansplit pea
hit man split personality
hot metal street piano
hot money sweet basil
last post sweet pea
Left Bank sweet pepper
light bulb sweet potato
light music test ban
light meter test match
light middleweight test paper
market price that man
midnight blue unit price
mint bushwet blanket
private billwhite bag
private memberwhite birch
private patientwhite meat
private partswhite paper
private practice



/ d / changes to / b / before / m / / b / or / p /




bad paingood cook
blood bankgood morning
blood bathgrand master
blood brotherground plan
blood poisoninghead boy
blood pressurehold back
blood puddinglord mayor
broad beanmud bath
card punchmud pie
closed bookOld Bailey
command moduleold boy
command postold man
custard pieold maid
custard powderold moon
dead beatOxford blue
food poisoningred bag
food processorsecond mate
gold platesound barrier
gold medalstand by
gold mineunited party
good manword blindness



/ n / changes to / m / before / m / / b / or / p /




action planningiron man
American planon me
brown paperone pair
brown bearopen book
chicken breast open market
Common Marketopen prison
con manpen pal
cotton beltpin money
cotton pickerqueen bee
down paymentqueen mother
fan beltquestion mark
fan mailroman mile
Foreign ministersun bath
Foreign missionsun blind
garden partytin plate
green belttown planning
green beanvenetian blind
hen partyvirgin birth
human beingwine box
in bluewine bar
iron maiden



/ t / changes to / k / before / k / or /g/




cigarette cardshort cut
credit cardsmart card
cut glassstreet credibility
fat girlstreet cry
first classthat cake
flat cap



/ d / changes to / g / before / k / or / g / 



bad girlhard cash
bird callhard copy
closed gamehard core
cold callhard court
cold creamhighland cattle
field glassesred carpet
good cooksand castle
Grand Canyonsecond class
ground controlsecond coming
ground coversecond cousin
had comeslide guitar
had gone



/ n / changes to /ŋ/ before / k / or / g /




action groupopen court
common goodroman calendar
common groundroman candle
garden cressroman catholic
golden gatetin can
golden goosetone control
human capitaltown clerk
in cameratown crier
iron curtain



/ s / changes to /ʃ/ before /ʃ/ or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound




bus shelternice yacht
dress shopspace shuttle
nice shoes



/ z / changes to /ʒ/ before /ʃ/ or / j / followed by a rounded vowel sound




cheese shopwhere's yours?
rose show
these sheep



/θ/ changes to / s / before / s /




bath saltsearth science
bath seatfifth set
birth certificatefourth season
both sexesfourth summer
both sides

north-south divide









- Tell her sounds like teller
- Was he there: Wazy there
- .,;:- do not permet linking
- At first he never came: at firsti never

Reduction:it is done in unstressed words: Function words: Prepositions, conjunctions, articles, helping verbs.
Note: Stressed words: Content words: Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

Helping verbs: has, have, had
What have you done? wadev you done

Linking Words Together

To speak English fluently, it’s necessary to link words together. Linking or liaison means to connect the last consonant sound in one word to the first sound of the next word. There are two situations in which we regularly use linking. Firstly, when a word begins with a vowel sound, it’s often pronounced as if it began with the final consonant sound of the previous word, e.g.:
Word Pronunciation
Don’t ask Don’ task
Lot of Lo’ tof
Come in Comin
We’ve eaten We’veaten
It’s open It sopen
Let’s eat Let seat
Source: Edited from the english@work e-newsletter by 938LIVE. Subscribe to the english@work newsletter.






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